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• Environmental Emissions

Piano can calculate both the amount and the precise distribution of atmospheric pollutants (NOx, CO and Hydrocarbons) emitted either during a complete flight profile or in the course of any other arbitrary sequence of manoeuvres. It has been used during intergovernmental studies on climate change and in other emissions-related research by several organisations. The existing ability of Piano to evaluate a flight profile in detail and provide high-resolution spatial distributions of fuel burn is combined with a widely used empirical method to derive pollutant emissions directly from the fuel-flow and ambient atmospheric conditions (according to the 'Boeing2' standard model). This method requires as its only input certain Reference Emission Indices (REINOx, REICO etc.) which are routinely provided by the manufacturer as part of the engine certification process. Reference values for a great variety of engine types can be found in an ICAO engine exhaust emissions databank that is in the public domain and available online.

• Direct Operating Cost (DOC)

A number of DOC methods are built into Piano, including the commonly used 'AEA' method specified by the Association of European Airlines for medium and long-range operations. All relevant cost assumptions such as fuel prices, amortisation periods, interest rates, salary and labour rates, residual values etc. can be adjusted by the user, effectively making DOC calculations programmable.

• Other Features

Amongst other features built into Piano are: Datafiles containing the locations and elevations of hundreds of sample airports which can be used to calculate typical Great Circle distances. Quick reference features for arbitrary airspeed conversions (Mach/ CAS/ EAS/ TAS), various properties of the International Standard Atmosphere (ISA), metric/imperial unit conversions etc. Tabulations and pictorial overlays can be created comparing the major characteristics of user-specified groups of aircraft. Other utilities help to enhance the routine usage of Piano and are covered in the User's Guide.

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